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Geo functions

These functions can be used when working with and analysing geospatial data.

FunctionDescription
geo::area()Calculates the area of a geometry
geo::bearing()Calculates the bearing between two geolocation points
geo::centroid()Calculates the centroid of a geometry
geo::distance()Calculates the distance between two geolocation points
geo::​hash::decode()Decodes a geohash into a geometry point
geo::​hash::encode()Encodes a geometry point into a geohash

Point and geometry

  • A point is composed of two floats that represent the longitude (east/west) and latitude (north/south) of a location.
  • A geometry is a type of object defined in the GeoJSON spec, of which Polygon is the most common. They can be passed in to the geo functions as objects that contain a "type" (such as "Polygon") and "coordinates" (an array of points).

geo::area

The geo::area function calculates the area of a geometry in square metres.

API DEFINITION
geo::area(geometry) -> number

The following example shows this function, and its output, when used in a RETURN statement for four approximate points found on a map for the US state of Wyoming which has an area of 253,340 km2 and a mostly rectangular shape. Note: the doubled square brackets are because the function takes an array of an array to allow for more complex types such as MultiPolygon.

A map of Wyoming in the United States with four approximate points on each corner used to approximate its total surface area in SurrealDB's geo area function.A map of Wyoming in the United States with four approximate points on each corner used to approximate its total surface area in SurrealDB's geo area function.
RETURN geo::area({
type: "Polygon",
coordinates: [[
[-111.0690, 45.0032],
[-104.0838, 44.9893],
[-104.0910, 40.9974],
[-111.0672, 40.9862]
]]
});
Response
253317731850.3478f

If the argument is not a geometry type, then an EMPTY value will be returned:

RETURN geo::area(12345);

null

geo::bearing

The geo::bearing function calculates the bearing between two geolocation points. Bearing begins at 0 degrees to indicate north, increasing clockwise into positive values and decreasing counterclockwise into negative values that converge at 180 degrees.

A circle showing how bearing is defined from 0 degrees to 360 degrees.A circle showing how bearing is defined from 0 degrees to 360 degrees.
API DEFINITION
geo::bearing(point, point) -> number

The following example shows this function, and its output, when used in a RETURN statement:

-- LET used here for readability
LET $paris = (2.358058597411099, 48.861109346459536);
LET $le_puy_en_velay = (3.883428431947686, 45.04383588468415);
RETURN geo::bearing($paris, $le_puy_en_velay);
Response
164.18154786094604
A map showing the path from Paris, the capital of France, to a French town called Le Puy En Velay. The bearing is south southeast.A map showing the path from Paris, the capital of France, to a French town called Le Puy En Velay. The bearing is south southeast.

If either argument is not a geolocation point, then an EMPTY value will be returned:

RETURN geo::bearing(12345, true);

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geo::centroid

The geo::centroid function calculates the centroid between multiple geolocation points.

API DEFINITION
geo::centroid(geometry) -> number

The following example shows this function, and its output, when used in a RETURN statement. Note: the doubled square brackets are because the function takes an array of an array to allow for more complex types such as MultiPolygon.

RETURN geo::centroid({
type: "Polygon",
coordinates: [[
[-0.03921743611083, 51.88106875736589], -- London
[30.48112752349519, 50.68377089794912], -- Kyiv
[23.66174524001544, 42.94500782833793], -- Sofia
[ 1.92481534361859, 41.69698118125476] -- Barcelona
]]
});

The return value is a mountainous region somewhere in Austria:

Response
(13.483896437936192, 47.07117241195589)
A map showing the centroid between four points in Europe: London, Kyiv, Sofia, and Barcelona. The centroid itself is located in Austria.A map showing the centroid between four points in Europe: London, Kyiv, Sofia, and Barcelona. The centroid itself is located in Austria.

If either argument is not a geometry type, then an EMPTY value will be returned:

RETURN geo::centroid(12345);

null

geo::distance

The geo::distance function calculates the haversine distance, in metres, between two geolocation points.

API DEFINITION
geo::distance(point, point) -> number

The following example shows this function, and its output, when used in a RETURN statement:

let $london = (-0.04592553673505285, 51.555282574465764);
let $harare = (30.463880214538577, -17.865161568822085);
RETURN geo::distance($london, $harare);
Response
8268604.251890702f
A map showing the distance in a straight line from London, the capital of the United Kingdom, to Harare, the capital of ZimbabweA map showing the distance in a straight line from London, the capital of the United Kingdom, to Harare, the capital of Zimbabwe

If either argument is not a geolocation point, then an EMPTY value will be returned:

RETURN geo::distance(12345, true);

null

geo::hash::decode

The geo::hash::decode function converts a geohash into a geolocation point.

API DEFINITION
geo::hash::decode(point) -> string

The following example shows this function, and its output, when used in a RETURN statement:

RETURN geo::hash::decode("mpuxk4s24f51");
Response
(51.50986494496465, -0.11809204705059528)

If the argument is not a geolocation point, then an EMPTY value will be returned:

RETURN geo::hash::decode(12345);

null

geo::hash::encode

The geo::hash::encode function converts a geolocation point into a geohash.

API DEFINITION
geo::hash::encode(point) -> string

The function accepts a second argument, which determines the accuracy and granularity of the geohash.

API DEFINITION
geo::hash::encode(point, number) -> string

The following example shows this function, and its output, when used in a RETURN statement:

RETURN geo::hash::encode( (51.509865, -0.118092) );

"mpuxk4s24f51"

The following example shows this function with two arguments, and its output, when used in a select statement:

RETURN geo::hash::encode( (51.509865, -0.118092), 5 );

"mpuxk"

If the first argument is not a geolocation point, then an EMPTY value will be returned:

RETURN geo::hash::encode(12345);

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