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Documentation Introduction Releases


SurrealDB has been built from the ground up to be the ultimate database for developers who want to build tomorrow's applications. On this page you can view the release notes for the different historic versions of SurrealDB, and for imminent future releases.

Release v1.0.0

13 September, 2023

View the blog post release announcement for full information.

Release v1.0.0-beta.12

12 September, 2023


  • EXPLAIN command now also explains why it sometimes falls back to a full table iteration.
  • Add $before and $after params to RETURN clauses.
  • Add live queries to INFO FOR TB statement.
  • Support of range queries in the query planner.

Bug fixes

  • Majorly improved error messages.
  • When a scope fails to authenticate, we now give a detailed explanation as to why.
  • Ensure parameters are computed before being stored on WebSocket.
  • Ensure DEFAULT clause is displayed on DEFINE FIELD statements.
  • Ensure scope SIGNUP and SIGNIN works with guest access disabled.
  • Fix authentication issues with LIVE SELECT statements.
  • Support FOR statements inside code blocks.
  • When a scope fails to authenticate, we now give a detailed explanation as to why.
  • Cluster bootstrapping now warns and continues instead of fail-stopping
  • Ensure Live Queries are killed correctly.
  • Ensure that scripting functions can be used within SELECT-statement predicates.
  • Avoid panics when displaying errors.
  • Prevent infinite parser recursion in stmts & binary exprs.
  • Fix panic on commit when defining db and tb in strict mode.
  • Fix decimal deserialisation.
  • Fix change feeds enabled at the database-level.
  • Allow for multiple indexes on a single field.

Release v1.0.0-beta.11

05 September, 2023


  • Moved every is::* function to string::is::*.
  • Introduce new type::is::array, type::is::bool, type::is::bytes, type::is::collection, type::is::datetime, type::is::decimal, type::is::duration, type::is::float, type::is::geometry, type::is::int, type::is::line, type::is::null, type::is::multiline, type::is::multipoint, type::is::multipolygon, type::is::number, type::is::object, type::is::point, type::is::polygon, type::is::record, type::is::string, type::is::uuid type validation methods.
  • Added X-Forwarded-For header to the accepted headers for the --client-ip option.
  • Allow all functions to be invoked by default.
  • Allow any type of value to be used in THROW statements.
  • Introduce a new ONLY keyword.

Bug fixes

  • Ensure that errors within scope logic are properly handled and do not cause a panic.
  • Ensure that capabilities are properly applied to embedded scripting functions.
  • Fix various niche issues caught by fuzzer that could cause a panic.
  • Fix relative file paths.

Introducing new type validation methods in SurrealQL

v1.0.0-beta.11 introduces new type validation methods. These new methods allow you to check which type any sort of value is on the go.

LET $value = "I am a string";


Guaranteed single item results with the new ONLY keyword

It was a bit rough previously to select, create, update or delete just a single record, so we simplified it a bit.

// Will return an object, as we can guarantee just a single record being selected here.
SELECT * FROM ONLY person:tobie;

// This will throw an error, as multiple records will be created and returned.
CREATE ONLY person:tobie, person:jaime;

THROW dynamic error messages

Previously, only strings could be passed to the THROW statement. We updated this so that the THROW statement now accepts any type of value.

LET $message = "Some error message";
THROW "Failed to perform action: " + $message;

Release v1.0.0-beta.10

01 September, 2023

If upgrading from 1.0.0-beta.9, make sure you follow the upgrading guide.


  • Introduce Live queries, which allow you to write application with realtime updates pushed to your users.
  • Introduce Full Text Search, which allows you to efficiently index and search through databases.
  • Introduce Change feeds, which allow you to retrieve an ordered sequence of changes that happened to your database, enabling you to easily replicate changes.
  • Introduce strict types into SurrealQL. With this change, types of fields on records can always be guaranteed.
  • Implemented the HTTP PUT and PATCH methods for complete tables.
  • Implemented the insert method in the websocket protocol to allow for bulk insertion of records.
  • Implemented missing JSON Patch operations (move, copy and test).
  • Introduce a new surreal validate [file] CLI command to validate SurrealQL queries.
  • Introduce a new --json flag to the surreal sql CLI command to return JSON instead of SurrealQL objects.
  • Introduce a new --endpoint flag to the surreal version CLI command to check the version of a remote instance.
  • Introduce a new --query-timeout flag to the surreal start CLI command to limit the maximum execution time of queries.
  • Introduce a new --client-ip flag to the surreal start CLI command to change the behaviour for detecting client IP-addresses.
  • Allow multiline queries in the CLI by ending the line with a \ character, then pressing enter.
  • Added a SpeeDB storage engine implementation.
  • Add authentication support for local engines
  • Introduce the ability to allow and deny certain capabilities of SurrealDB.
  • Introduce the ability to create multiple root-level users.
  • Introduce basic RBAC functionality.
  • Introduce the full fetch-suite into our embedded scripting functions.
  • Introduce a new query function into our embedded scripting functions, enabling the execution of surrealql within them.
  • Introduce a new value function into our embedded scripting functions, enabling the retrieval of variables from the current execution context.
  • Expose all built-in SurrealQL methods to the embedded scripting functions.
  • Introduce a new UNSET clause to remove properties from a document.
  • Introduce a new DEFAULT clause on field definitions.
  • Introduce a new OMIT clause to omit certain fields from a selection.
  • Introduce a new COMMENT clause on all resource definitions, allowing to add a description to such.
  • The WHEN clause on events is now optional.
  • Allow segmenting custom function names with multiple :: splits.
  • Allow DEFINE and REMOVE statements to be used within subqueries.
  • Introduce the ability to reference a object keys by a string, variable or document property.
  • Introduce the ability to set permissions on PARAMs and custom FUNCTIONs.
  • Introduce a simplified IF-ELSE syntax when using a block as the body.
  • Change the INFO statement to use full words instead of abbreviations.
  • Introduce the new FOR, CONTINUE, BREAK and THROW statements.
  • Introduce new array::slice, array::join, array::clump, array::find, array::boolean_and, array::boolean_or, array::boolean_xor, array::boolean_not, array::logical_and, array::logical_or, array::logical_xor, array::matches, array::retain, array::transpose, array::first, array::last and array::at array methods.
  • Introduce new string::contains, string::distance::hamming, string::distance::levenshtein, string::similarity::fuzzy, string::similarity::jaro, string::similarity::smithwaterman string methods.
  • Introduce new vector::add, vector::angle, vector::cross, vector::dot, vector::divide, vector::magnitude, vector::multiply, vector::normalize, vector::project, vector::subtract, vector::distance::chebyshev, vector::distance::euclidean, vector::distance::hamming, vector::distance::mahalanobis, vector::distance::manhattan, vector::distance::minkowski, vector::similarity::cosine, vector::similarity::jaccard, vector::similarity::pearson, vector::similarity::spearman vector methods
  • Introduce new time::ceil, time::minand time::max time methods.
  • Introduce a new time::EPOCH constant, containing the unix epoch timestamp as a datetime.
  • Introduce type::field() and type::fields() methods to dynamically select properties from a resource.

Bug fixes

  • Ensure duration addition and subtraction does not panic.
  • Ensure custom functions can write to the database without being wrapped in a transaction.
  • Ensure edge record deletes do not cascade to related records.
  • Ensure http::* functions parse response bodies as JSON instead of SurrealQL.
  • Fixed HTTP errors sometimes being unable to be deserialised.
  • Allow exports larger than 10,240 bytes for local engines.
  • Fixed an issue where array::remove() would cause a panic.
  • Ensure string::slice() properly handles UTF-8 values.
  • Ensure large duration do not cause a panic.
  • Prevent infinite recursion with futures causing an overflow.
  • Ensure chained future values have access to current document context.
  • Ensure $input is available to array fields in SET clause
  • Make computation depth 4X deeper, and configurable via the SURREAL_MAX_COMPUTATION_DEPTH environment variable.
  • Ensure JSON-like text is trimmed before parsing.
  • Ensure Idiom paths result in writeable transactions where necessary.
  • Visibly warn if failed to deserialize websocket response.
  • Throw an error for invalid patches instead of panicking.
  • Ensure errors do not hide other results. If any query in a set of queries were to fail in the CLI, only the error would be shown. This is now fixed by including the error in an array of results.
  • Ensure duration is bigger than zero before truncating and rounding datetime.
  • Pass on the error that causes a transaction to fail.
  • Allow custom functions to be defined with an empty body.
  • Limit output size of all string::* functions to prevent memory exhaustion.
  • Allow \ escaped characters to be used in embedded scripting functions.
  • Fixed not being able to select from an array by index, directly after an array filter.
  • Allow deletions of records on DROP tables.
  • Allow keywords as ident prefix.
  • Ensure permissions are enforced on edge in and out fields.
  • Ensure records can be INSERTed on tables with permissions.
  • Ensure foreign tables are deleted fully when removed
  • Support whitespace between function keyword and argument list for embedded scription functions.
  • Ensure ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE clause is displayed on INSERT statement.
  • Limit parser depth to prevent exhaustion and overflows.
  • Prevent being able to create a record with an empty ID.
  • Throw an error when a record is created with a mismatched record ID.
  • Support arbitrary number of arrays in array::concat().
  • Support ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE when a unique index entry exists.

Performance improvements

  • Parsing nested objects and blocks now has an O(n) complexity instead of O(2^n), resulting in a 3666x improvement.
  • The JSON parser is now 153 times faster.

Get realtime updates in your application with SurrealDB Live Queries

v1.0.0-beta.10 introduces Live Queries. This powerful technology allows you to write applications where you can serve realtime updates to your frontend.

// You can initiate the live query in your application
LET $lq = LIVE SELECT * FROM person WHERE age > 18;
// And you can dispose the live query once it is no longer needed
KILL $lq;
// SurrealDB SDKs allow you to easily initiate live queries, and to process the received messages.
const lq = await'person', function({ action, result }) {
	if (action == "CREATE") {

// Once you no longer need the live feed of updates, you can dispose the live query
await db.kill(lq);

Efficiently index and search your data with SurrealDB Full Text Search

With Full Text Search, you can efficiently store and index data, and search through it.

// We can define an analyzer on our database,
// Then, define an index to dictate which content we want to index (yep, that easy)
DEFINE ANALYZER simple TOKENIZERS blank,class FILTERS snowball(english);

// We can then create some content
CREATE article SET content = "Join us at SurrealDB World, as we unveil our version 1.0.0 to the world!";
CREATE article SET content = "We will absolutely be at Surreal World!";

// And lastly, select some data from the article table.
// We use the special "@num@" operator, where we define a reference.
// We can then reference back in the search::* functions.
	search::score(1) AS score,
	search::offsets(1) AS offsets,
	search::highlight('<b>', '</b>', 1) AS highlighted
FROM article WHERE
	content @1@ 'world'

Allow or deny capabilities when starting your SurrealDB instance

All capabilities are disabled by default. This means that by default, you are not able to use any methods, embedded scripting functions, make outbound network calls, or access the database anonymously. Down below follows a set of examples to showcase how one can configure capabilities.

Capabilities are further documented in the Capabilities documentation.

# Allow all capabilities
user@localhost % surreal start --allow-all

# Allow all functions, except for custom functions
user@localhost % surreal start --allow-funcs --deny-funcs fn

# Allow all capabilities, but deny guest/anonymous access to the database
user@localhost % surreal start --allow-all --deny-guests

Revamped root users

It is now possible to define multiple root users in SurrealDB. This change did require some changes in the way that you start your database however.

With this change, you will now only initially have to provide the --user and --pass flags to create the initial root user, but once the first root user exists, they will no longer by utilized.

For more information, check out the Authentication guide, and the surreal start and DEFINE USER documentation.

# When you initially start the database, you can create the first root user.
user@localhost % surreal start --auth --user root --pass root file:database.db

# In the future, you don't need to specify the --user and --pass flags anymore
user@localhost % surreal start --auth file:database.db
// Afterwards, you are able to create multiple root users.

Strict typing in SurrealQL

v1.0.0-beta.10 introduces a more strict and powerful typing system. It makes things more simple to understand, and it goes a long way in preventing all kinds of weird bugs in your schemas!

// Where you previously had to manually assert that a field does not contain NONE or NULL
DEFINE FIELD age ON person TYPE number ASSERT $value != NONE AND $value != NULL;

// You can now simply set the type and be ensured that only a number will be stored in that field.
DEFINE FIELD age ON person TYPE number;

// To make types optional, you can use the newly introduced "option<type>" type.
// This guarantees the field to be either empty (NONE), or a number.
DEFINE FIELD age ON person TYPE option<number>;

// We also introduces some new types!
DEFINE FIELD ratings 		ON movie 	TYPE array<number>;
DEFINE FIELD best_ratings 	ON movie 	TYPE array<number, 5>;
DEFINE FIELD unique_ratings ON movie 	TYPE set<number, 5>;

// And we made sure that the record type is also in-line with this new format
DEFINE FIELD author 		ON book 	TYPE record<person>;

// Lastly, it is now possible to set a union type.
DEFINE FIELD title 			ON article 	TYPE string | number;
// They can also be used in "nested" types
DEFINE FIELD description 	ON article 	TYPE option<string | number>;
DEFINE FIELD author 		ON article 	TYPE record<person | admin>;

Set a DEFAULT value on field definitions

// You previously needed to involve logic with the "VALUE" clause to set a default value.
DEFINE FIELD enabled ON user TYPE bool VALUE $value OR $before OR true;
// You can now simply use the DEFAULT clause for this.
DEFINE FIELD enabled ON user TYPE bool DEFAULT true;

// As an added bonus, when you only define a VALUE clause with a simple value,
// then that will also act as the default value.
DEFINE FIELD constant ON demo VALUE 123;
// This will act the same as the following
DEFINE FIELD constant ON demo VALUE 123 DEFAULT 123;

PERMISSIONS on global parameters and custom functions

Scope and anonymous users previously had access to every defined global parameter and function. You can now define these resources with a PERMISSIONS clause to protect them.

DEFINE PARAM $perms_none VALUE 'Nobody can see me' PERMISSIONS NONE;
DEFINE PARAM $perms_full VALUE 'Everybody can see me' PERMISSIONS FULL;
DEFINE PARAM $perms_scope VALUE 'Only admins can see me' PERMISSIONS WHERE $scope = 'admin';

DEFINE FUNCTION fn::perms::none() {
	RETURN 'Nobody can invoke me';

DEFINE FUNCTION fn::perms::full() {
	RETURN 'Everybody can invoke me';

DEFINE FUNCTION fn::perms::scope() {
	RETURN 'Only admins can invoke me';
} PERMISSIONS WHERE $scope = 'admin';

FOR, BREAK and CONTINUE statements

// Here, we loop through an array with three numbers.
// For any number under two, we skip the iteration
// For any number above two, we break the loop
// The result is that only when the number is two, we will create the "person:two" record.

FOR $num IN [1, 2, 3] {
	IF $num < 2 {

	IF $num > 2 {

	CREATE person:two;

// Here, we select the id for every person in the database, and we gift them a ticket to SurrealDB World.
FOR $person IN (SELECT VALUE id FROM person) {
		recipient: $person,
		type: "ticket",
		event: "SurrealDB World"

THROW statement

Did something unexpected happen, and do you want to throw an error to the client? Now you can!

IF !is::string($variable) {
	THROW "Expected a string, but got something else."

COMMENT away on resource definitions!

// Give extra context about a certain resource
DEFINE TABLE user COMMENT "This table will store users!";

Less bulky IF-ELSE statements

We found the IF-ELSE statement to be a bit bulky at times. Now, when you use a block ({}) as the body of the statement, you can skip out on the THEN and END keywords!

// Previously
IF something = true THEN {
	RETURN 123;
} END;

// Now
IF something = true {
	RETURN 123;

More features for our embedded scripting functions

With fetch(), query(), value() and basically every SurrealQL function now being available within the embedded scripting functions, they are a very powerful extension to SurrealQL, and can be used to solve complex problems otherwise impossible!

Read more about them in the Embedded scripting functions documentation.

function() {
	const page = await fetch('');
	const people = await surrealdb.query('SELECT * FROM person');
	const auth = await surrealdb.value('auth');
	const uuid = surrealdb.functions.rand.uuid.v4();

Release v1.0.0-beta.9

01 April, 2023

If upgrading from 1.0.0-beta.8, make sure you follow the upgrading guide.


  • Add WebSocket binary protocol
  • Don’t treat NONE and NULL as the same
  • Allow SELECT statements to START AT 0
  • Add not() function for negating a value
  • Add support for mathematical constants
  • Add functionality for open telemetry tracing
  • Add support for SQL parameters in HTTP REST endpoints
  • Log release version identifier when starting the server
  • Add string::is::url() function for checking if a string is a URL
  • Implement inclusive and unbounded record rangese
  • Support negative offsets in SQL string::slice() function
  • Add time::timezone() function for getting the local timezone offset
  • Add is::datetime() function for checking if a value is a datetime
  • Add ability to set global parameters using DEFINE PARAM statements
  • Prevent invalid aggregate functions being used in GROUP BY clauses
  • Check expressions for SPLIT ON, GROUP BY, and ORDER BY clauses
  • Enable fetching fields and values from within complex Record IDs
  • Allow parameters in LIMIT and START clauses in SELECT statements
  • Add parse::url::scheme() function for parsing a url protocol
  • Add time::format() function for formatting of datetimes
  • Add support for FETCH clauses in SQL RETURN statements
  • Add rand::uuid::v4() and rand::uuid::v7() functions for creating different UUID types
  • Add Null Coalescing Operator and Ternary Conditional Operator
  • Enable current input to be retrieved in ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE clauses with $input parameter
  • Add math::pow() function and ** operator
  • Ensure command-line exits with non-zero code on errors
  • Add IN and NOT IN operators as aliases to INSIDE and NOT INSIDE
  • Add command-line argument flag to disable SurrealDB banner at server startup
  • Enable calling SurrealQL functions from within JavaScript scripting runtime
  • Add support for FLEXIBLE fields on SCHEMAFULL tables
  • Add additional array functions for array checking, and manipulation: - array::all(), array::any(), array::pop() - array::add(), array::append(), array::insert(), array::prepend(), array::push() - array::remove(), array::reverse(), array::group(), array::complement()

Bug fixes

  • Enable searching within Record IDs using the CONTAINS operator
  • Ensure date strings are not treated as datetimes
  • Limit computation depth in functions, futures, and subqueries
  • Ensure SQL queries are parsed completely or fail
  • Ensure all valid unicode characters are parsed without failing
  • Ensure nested non-defined objects are not stored in SCHEMAFULL tables
  • Ensure equals comparator function never reeaches unreachable code
  • Ensure cancelled context does not prevent FETCH of records
  • Ensure GROUP BY fields with functions are output correctly
  • Ensure system parameters are not able to be overridden
  • Ensure record is only deleted after permissions have been checked
  • Ensure double quote characters are always escaped properly
  • Ensure RocksDB range scans are inclusive at the start
  • Ensure uncaught JavaScript exceptions are caught in JavaScript runtime
  • Do not run permissions on DEFINE EVENT and DEFINE TABLE queries
  • Ensure invalid datetimes to not panic

Performance improvements

  • Limit computation depth in functions, futures, and subqueries
  • Ensure PERMISSIONS clauses are not run for ROOT / NS / DB users

Enable returning a single field from SELECT statements

SurrealDB now allows you to fetch a single field from a SELECT statement or from a subquery, returning an array of values, rather than an array of objects.

// We can now select an array of just a single field
SELECT VALUE name FROM person;

Add support for FETCH clauses at the end of RETURN statements

SurrealDB now allows fetching remote fields in RETURN statements, in addition to SELECT statements.

// We can now fetch fields from RETURN statements
RETURN person:tobie FETCH account, connections;

Add Null Coalescing operator and Ternary Conditional operator

SurrealDB now supports the Null Coalescing operator (??), and the Ternary Conditional operator (?:) for simpler logic calculations.

// Check whether either of two values are truthy
SELECT * FROM NULL ?: 0 ?: false ?: 10; -- Will return 10
// Check whether either of two values are truthy and not NULL.
SELECT * FROM NULL ?? 0 ?? false ?? 10; -- Will return 0

Allow fetching fields from within complex Record IDs

Fields within complex Record IDs can now be retrieved and used within SELECT queries.

// Create a record with a complex Record ID
CREATE recording:{ location: 'London', date: time::now() } SET temperature = 23.7;
// Select a field from within the Record ID
SELECT id.location, temperature FROM recording;

Support for FLEXIBLE fields on SCHEMAFULL tables

SCHEMAFULL and SCHEMALESS functionality can now be used together, suitable for capturing schema-free log data.

// We want to define a SCHEMAFULL table
// But we want one field to allow any content
DEFINE FIELD settings on person FLEXIBLE TYPE object;
// We can then set the field value without a schema
CREATE person:test CONTENT {
	settings: {
		nested: {
			object: {
				thing: 'test'

Support code blocks and advanced expressions

It is now possible to run blocks of code, with support for an arbitrary number of statements, including LET and RETURN statements. This allows for writing advanced custom logic, and allowing for more complicated handling of data operations.

DEFINE FIELD average_sales ON metrics VALUE {
	LET $sales = (SELECT VALUE quantity FROM sales);
	LET $total = math::sum($sales);
	LET $count = count($sales);
	RETURN ($total / $count);

Enable access to the user input in DEFINE FIELD statements

DEFINE FIELD statements now have access to an $input variable in the VALUE and ASSERT clauses.

	-- Prevent any changes, if the input value is not title-case
	ASSERT IF $input THEN $input = /^[A-Z]{1}[a-z]+$/ ELSE true END
	-- If the input value is title-case, then add a prefix to the field
	VALUE IF $input THEN 'Name: ' + $input ELSE $value END
-- This record update will fail
UPDATE person:test CONTENT { name: 'jaime' };
-- This record update will succeed
UPDATE person:test REPLACE { name: 'Tobie' };

Define global parameters with DEFINE PARAM statements

SurrealDB now supports the ability to define global database-wide parameters, which can be useful to store certain commonly-used variables.

-- Define a global parameter which will be accessible to all queries.
-- Use the defined global parameter in all queries on the database.
DEFINE EVENT payment ON TABLE order WHEN $event = 'CREATE' THEN http::post($STRIPE, $value);
// We can also override the parameter for certain queries if we want
// And fetching this parameter will fetch the locally defined parameter
RETURN http::post($STRIPE, $value);

Define custom functions with DEFINE FUNCTION statements

SurrealDB now supports the ability to define global database-wide custom functions, which allow for complicated or repeated user-defined code, to be run seamlessly within any query across the database. Custom functions support typed arguments, and multiple nested queries with custom logic.

-- Define a global function which can be used in any query
DEFINE FUNCTION fn::get_person($first: string, $last: string, $birthday: string) {

	LET $person = SELECT * FROM person WHERE [first, last, birthday] = [$first, $last, $birthday];

	RETURN IF $person[0].id THEN
		CREATE person SET first = $first, last = $last, birthday = $birthday


-- Call the global custom function, receiving the returned result
LET $person = fn::get_person('Tobie', 'Morgan Hitchcock', '2022-09-21');

Add support for selecting ranges of records

SurrealDB supports the ability to query a range of records, using the record ID. The record ID ranges, retrieve records using the natural sorting order of the record IDs. These range queries can be used to query a range of records in a timeseries context.

-- Select all person records with IDs between the given range
SELECT * FROM person:1..1000;
-- Select all records for a particular location, inclusive
SELECT * FROM temperature:['London', NONE]..=['London', time::now()];
-- Select all temperature records with IDs less than a maximum value
SELECT * FROM temperature:..['London', '2022-08-29T08:09:31'];
-- Select all temperature records with IDs greater than a minimum value
SELECT * FROM temperature:['London', '2022-08-29T08:03:39']..;
-- Select all temperature records with IDs between the specified range
SELECT * FROM temperature:['London', '2022-08-29T08:03:39']..['London', '2022-08-29T08:09:31'];

Rust API with embedded and remote connections over HTTP and WebSockets

SurrealDB now has a native Rust API for connecting to local database instances, and remote database servers over both HTTP and WebSockets with a binary protocol and a custom serialization format.

static DB: Lazy<Surreal<Client>> = Lazy::new(Surreal::init);

async fn main() -> surrealdb::Result<()> {
    // Connect to the database
    // Select a namespace + database
    // Create or update a specific record
    let tobie: Option<Record> = DB
        .update(("person", "tobie"))
        .content(Person { name: "Tobie" })

Release v1.0.0-beta.8

30 September, 2022


  • Improve HTTP request error messages
  • Add support for dynamic expressions in Record IDs
  • Add support for PERMISSIONS clauses to be separated by commas or spaces
  • Allow deep-merging in UPDATE ... MERGE statements
  • Add debug and trace logging for authentication attempts
  • Make validation and parsing functions more robust with certain edge cases
  • Ignore empty or blank lines when using the SurrealDB SQL REPL
  • Use a dedicated executor thread for CPU-intensive functions
  • Ensure server listens to, and gracefully exits, on SIGINT/SIGTERM signals
  • Add duration functions for calculating durations as specific units
  • Add support for calculating the duration between two datetime values
  • Improve error message when automatically creating a table without authorization
  • Add support for uppercase and lowercase object keys in JWT authentication tokens
  • Allow namespaced claim aliases in JWT token using full domain-specific key names
  • Add support for retrieving JWT authentication token contents using $token parameter
  • Add support for different content return types on /signup and /signin HTTP routes
  • Add session::token() function for retrieving the contents of the JWT authentication token
  • Ensure NONE and NULL values are not automatically cast to another type when updating records
  • Add /health HTTP endpoint for checking the database and data storage engine status
  • Add crypto::bcrypt::generate() and crypto::bcrypt::compare() functions
  • Improve error messages for unique indexes, when inserting records which already exist in the index
  • Add meta::tb() and meta::id() functions for retrieving separate parts of a SurrealDB Record ID
  • Add support for using 3rd party authentication JWTs with DEFINE TOKEN ... ON SCOPE ...

Bug fixes

  • Add support for escaped characters and unicode characters in strings
  • Ensure datetimes work correctly in Eastern timezones
  • Ensure is::uuid() parses valid UUIDs correctly
  • Ensure LET statements throw errors correctly on failure
  • Ensure Record IDs are parsed correctly when defined as a string
  • Fix bug where escaped characters were not supported in regex values
  • Ensure datetimes with milliseconds or nanoseconds are parsed correctly
  • Ensure datetimes with partial timezones are correctly calculated
  • Ensure time::month() returns the month of the specified datetime
  • Ensure FETCH clauses fetch the respective data correctly
  • Handle connection errors properly when WebSocket clients disconnect improperly
  • Ensure HTTP session is not verified multiple times when requesting an invalid HTTP route
  • Use Accept header instead of Content-Type header for client content negotiation
  • Fix key scan range iteration in RocksDB, which caused SurrealDB to randomly crash
  • Ensure authenticated session data is stored after successful scope signup / signin
  • Fix bug where http functions would panic when an invalid URI was specified
  • Ensure correct transaction type (optimistic / pessimistic) was initiated when using TiKV distributed storage engine
  • Ensure math::mean(), math::median(), and math::sqrt() work correctly with empty or zero values
  • Fix bug where MultiPoint, MultiLine, and MultiPolygon geometry values were not formatted correctly
  • Fix bug where defined fields with empty values would be set on the root object, losing the object structure

Performance improvements

  • Miscellaneous performance optimizations and code cleanup
  • Limit maximum allowed runtime and memory in JavaScript functions
  • Ensure crypto and rand functions do not allow unbounded resource usage
  • Ensure read-only transactions are used when write functionality is not needed when using TiKV distributed storage engine

Embedding the results of a subquery

SurrealDB now allows you to use the resulting Record IDs of a subquery, and embed them within another record, without having to specify the id field specifically.

// It is now possible to define a new Record ID as normal
LET $friend = (CREATE person SET name = 'Jaime');
// There is no need to select the `id` field using `$`
CREATE person SET name = "Tobie", friend = $friend;

Embedded Record IDs in CREATE and RELATE statements

SurrealDB now supports the ability to set a specific reocrd ID in the record content itself when creating records using CREATE and RELATE statements.

// It is now possible to define a new Record ID as normal
CREATE person:test SET name = "Tobie";
// Or by specifying the Record ID within the record data part of the query
CREATE person SET id = person:test, name = "Tobie";
// In addition the ID can be specified in a CONTENT object
CREATE person CONTENT { id: person:test, name: "Tobie" };
// Numbers can be used, and will be converted into a Record ID
CREATE user CONTENT { id: 1, name: "Robert" };
// Strings can be used, and will be converted into a Record ID
CREATE city CONTENT { id: "London", name: "London" };
// UUIDs can be used, and will be converted into a Record ID
CREATE city CONTENT { id: "8e60244d-95f6-4f95-9e30-09a98977efb0", name: "London" };
// Complex values can be used, and will be converted into a Record ID
CREATE temperature CONTENT { id: ["London", time::now()], name: "London" };
// Complex values can be used, and will be converted into a Record ID
RELATE person:tobie->knows->person:jaime SET id = knows:cofounder;

Support for deep-merge record updates

SurrealDB now supports deep-merging record changes, ensuring that only specified object fields are modified and overwritten.

// Create a record
CREATE person:test SET name.initials = 'TMH', name.first = 'Tobie', name.last = 'Morgan Hitchcock';
// Use the MERGE clause to deep merge objects, without overwriting any fields
UPDATE person:test MERGE {
	name: {
		title: 'Mr',
		initials: NONE,
	tags: ['Rust', 'Golang', 'JavaScript'],

Dynamic expressions in complex Record IDs

Complex Record IDs now support dynamic expressions, allowing parameters, and function expressions to be used as values within the IDs. This is useful in a timeseries context, or for ensuring locality between specific records in a table.

// Set a new parameter
LET $now = time::now();
// Create a record with a complex ID using an array
CREATE temperature:['London', $now] SET
	location = 'London',
	date = $now,
	temperature = 23.7
// Create a record with a complex ID using an object
CREATE temperature:{ location: 'London', date: $now } SET
	location = 'London',
	date = $now,
	temperature = 23.7
// Select a range of records up to the current time
SELECT * FROM temperature:['London', '2022-08-29T08:03:39']..['London', time::now()];

Release v1.0.0-beta.7

29 August, 2022

  • Add a Windows amd64 release build
  • Add support for Objects and Arrays as Record IDs
  • Add support for querying records using Record ID ranges
  • Add SQL session functions for retrieving session variables
  • Make --ns and --db arguments optional in command-line REPL
  • Return an error when the specified datastore is not able to be initiated
  • Enable root authentication for client libraries using WebSocket protocol
  • Ensure math::sum() returns a number instead of a NONE value, when called on a non-array value
  • Add ACID compliant, persistent, on-disk storage implementation, with multiple concurrent writers using RocksDB

Complex Record IDs

SurrealDB now supports the ability to define record IDs using arrays and objects. These values sort correctly, and can be used to store values or recordings in a timeseries context.

// Create a record with a complex ID using an array
CREATE temperature:['London', '2022-08-29T08:03:39'] SET
	location = 'London',
	date = '2022-08-29T08:03:39',
	temperature = 23.7
// Create a record with a complex ID using an object
CREATE temperature:{ location: 'London', date: '2022-08-29T08:03:39' } SET
	location = 'London',
	date = '2022-08-29T08:03:39',
	temperature = 23.7
// Select a specific record using a complex ID
SELECT * FROM temperature:['London', '2022-08-29T08:03:39'];

Record ID ranges

SurrealDB now supports the ability to query a range of records, using the record ID. The record ID ranges, retrieve records using the natural sorting order of the record IDs. With the addition of complex record IDs above, this can be used to query a range of records in a timeseries context.

// Select all person records with IDs between the given range
SELECT * FROM person:1..1000;
// Select all temperature records with IDs between the given range
SELECT * FROM temperature:['London', '2022-08-29T08:03:39']..['London', '2022-08-29T08:09:31'];

Release v1.0.0-beta.6

13 August, 2022

  • Add command-line SurrealQL REPL for quick querying of a database
  • Log username at server startup when root authentication is enabled
  • Enable SurrealDB server to be configured using environment variables
  • Implement config definition key and value caching within a transaction
  • Add array::sort functions for sorting of arrays and array fields
  • Ensure an error is returned when selecting from a non-existent table in strict mode
  • Allow polymorphic remote record constraints in DEFINE FIELD statements
  • Fix bug with SQL export, where DEFINE INDEX statements were not exported
  • Fix bug where multi-yield path expressions with multiple alias outputs were returning nested arrays
  • Fix bug where aliased field was not output when fetching a multi-yield expressions with a final alias yield

SurrealDB REPL

SurrealDB now supports the ability to start a command-line REPL to query a local or remote database from the terminal.

user@localhost % surreal sql --conn http://localhost:8000 --user root --pass root --ns test --db test

Release v1.0.0-beta.5

01 August, 2022

  • Temporarily disable HTTP response compression
  • Improve surreal import and surreal export cli commands
  • Fix bug where GROUP BY fields with an alias AS name were not output correctly
  • Fix SQL syntax parsing bug when specifying DEFINE INDEX statements with UNIQUE constraints

Release v1.0.0-beta.4

28 July, 2022

  • Add new strict mode to SurrealDB server
  • Ensure default table permissions are set to NONE not FULL
  • Fix bug when defining NS and DB without first selecting a NS or DB
  • Fix bug with VALUE and ASSERT clauses in DEFINE FIELD statements when fields are not present in query

Strict mode

SurrealDB now supports the ability to startup in strict mode. When running in strict mode, all NAMESPACE, DATABASE, and TABLE definitions will not be created automatically when data is inserted. Instead if the selected namespace, database, or table has not been specifically defined, then the query will return an error.

user@localhost % surreal start --strict --log debug memory

Release v1.0.0-beta.3

24 July, 2022

  • Enable years as a unit in durations (1y)
  • Log root authentication configuration status on server startup
  • Ensure CORS headers are set on all HTTP responses even when request fails with an error
  • Improve syntax for defining futures: fn::future -> changed to <future>
  • Improve syntax for defining embedded functions: fn::script -> () => changed to function()
  • Ensure root authentication is completely disabled when -p or --pass cli arguments are not specified

Release v1.0.0-beta.2

20 July, 2022

  • Improve command-line logging output
  • Enable new --log argument for specifying server log level
  • Hide default randomly-generated server password
  • Ensure correct version is displayed when running surreal version command

Release v1.0.0-beta.1

18 July, 2022

  • Entire SurrealDB codebase re-written in Rust
  • Single-node, in-memory storage for development use
  • Highly-available, highly-scalable distributed storage for production use
  • Improved SurrealQL query language with faster parsing, and embedded inspection of types
  • Performance improvements with data parsing, and serialization and deserialization of records
  • Added support for casting and converting between different data types
  • Added a new data type for storing values which should only be computed in the future when selected for output
  • Embedded JavaScript functions for writing complex functions and triggers, with runtime context isolation
  • Addition of nested GeoJSON data types, including Point, Line, Polygon, MultiPoint, MultiLine, MultiPolygon, and Collection values


Values which should be computed only when outputting data, can be stored as futures. These values are stored in SurrealDB as SurrealQL code, and are calculated only when output as part of a SELECT clause.


In SurrealDB, all data values are strongly typed. Values can be cast and converted to other types using specific casting operators. These include bool, int, float, string, number, decimal, datetime, and duration casts.

UPDATE product SET
	name = "SurrealDB",
	launch_at = "2021-11-01",
	countdown = <future> { launch_at - time::now() }
	waist = <int> "34",
	height = <float> 201,
	score = <decimal> 0.3 + 0.3 + 0.3 + 0.1

RELATE statements

The RELATE statement adds graph edges between records in SurrealDB. It follows the convention of vertex -> edge -> vertex or noun -> verb -> noun, enabling the addition of metadata to the edge record.

INSERT statements

The INSERT statement resembles the traditional SQL statement, enabling users to get started quickly. It supports the creation of records using a VALUES clause, or by specifying the record data as an object.

-- Add a graph edge between user:tobie and article:surreal
RELATE user:tobie->write->article:surreal
	SET time.written = time::now()

-- Add a graph edge between specific users and developers
LET $from = (SELECT users FROM company:surrealdb);
LET $devs = (SELECT * FROM user WHERE tags CONTAINS 'developer');
RELATE $from->like->$devs UNIQUE
	SET time.connected = time::now()
INSERT INTO company {
	name: 'SurrealDB',
	founded: "2021-09-10",
	founders: [person:tobie, person:jaime],
	tags: ['big data', 'database']

INSERT IGNORE INTO company (name, founded)
	VALUES ('SurrealDB', '2021-09-10')
	ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE tags += 'developer tools'


SurrealQL supports fetching data using dot notation ., array notation [], and graph semantics ->. SurrealQL enables records to link to other records and traverses all embedded links or graph connections as desired. When traversing and fetching remote records SurrealQL enables advanced filtering using traditional WHERE clauses.

-- Select a nested array, and filter based on an attribute
SELECT emails[WHERE active = true] FROM person;

-- Select all 1st, 2nd, and 3rd level people who this specific person record knows, or likes, as separate outputs
SELECT ->knows->(? AS f1)->knows->(? AS f2)->(knows, likes AS e3 WHERE influencer = true)->(? AS f3) FROM person:tobie;

-- Select all person records (and their recipients), who have sent more than 5 emails
SELECT *, ->sent->email->to->person FROM person WHERE count(->sent->email) > 5;

-- Select other products purchased by people who purchased this laptop
SELECT <-purchased<-person->purchased->product FROM product:laptop;

-- Select products purchased by people in the last 3 weeks who have purchased the same products that we purchased
SELECT ->purchased->product<-purchased<-person->(purchased WHERE created_at > time::now() - 3w)->product FROM person:tobie;

Embedded JavaScript functions

Javascript functions can be used for more complex functions and triggers. Each Javascript function iteration runs with its own context isolation - with the current record data passed in as the execution context or this value.

	ratings = [
		{ rating: 6, user: user:bt8e39uh1ouhfm8ko8s0 },
		{ rating: 8, user: user:bsilfhu88j04rgs0ga70 },
	featured = function() {
		return this.ratings.filter(r => {
			return r.rating >= 7;
		}).map(r => {
			return { ...r, rating: r.rating * 10 };

Release v0.3.0

14 December, 2021

  • Enable query and session parameters to be defined on a JSON-RPC connection
  • Ensure subqueries can access encoding parent query and grand-parent queries
  • Add diff-match-patch functionality when updating document records
  • Separate authentication levels for Namespace and Database specific access
  • Authentication scope definition and setup, with user-defined authentication logic for each scope

Pre-defined aggregate analytics views

Aggregate views let you pre-compute analytics queries as data is written to SurrealDB. Similarly to an index, a table view lets you select, aggregate, group, and order data, with support for moving averages, time-based windowing, and attribute-based counting. Pre-defined aggregate views are efficient and performant, with only a single record modification being made for every write.

-- Drop all writes to the reading table. We don't need every reading.

-- Define a table as a view which aggregates data from the reading table
DEFINE TABLE temperatures_by_month AS
		count() AS total,
		time::month(recorded_at) AS month,
		math::mean(temperature) AS average_temp
	FROM reading
	GROUP BY city

-- Add a new temperature reading with some basic attributes
CREATE reading SET
	temperature = 27.4,
	recorded_at = time::now(),
	city = 'London',
	location = (-0.118092, 51.509865)

Release v0.2.0

21 January, 2021

  • Parameters can be used to store values or result sets
  • Nested subquery functionality, with scoped parameters
  • Nested field query notation allowing nested arrays and objects to be queried
  • Mathematical operators for complex mathematical calculations in queries
  • Advanced functions for working with arrays, strings, time, validation, parsing, and counting

Release v0.1.0

08 December, 2019

  • Multi-tenancy data separation, with namespaces and databases
  • Schemafull or schemaless tables with limitless document fields
  • Multi-table, multi-row, serialisable ACID transactions
  • Table fields, table change events, table indexes, and data constraints
  • Advanced data model including empty values, strings, numbers, objects, arrays, durations, and datetimes